Materials Science & Engineering is an interdisciplinary field that applies the fundamental knowledge of the physical sciences to create engineering innovations. In general, engineering implies actively designing a system for a given application, while Materials Science & Engineering enables the design of systems from the atoms up. Materials Science & Engineering focuses on the interrelationship between a materials structure, from the subatomic- to the macro-scale, and the properties or behaviors that the material exhibits. Materials synthesis and processing techniques enable engineers to control and change the material structure in order to obtain the desired properties. Understanding the structure-properties-processing relationship requires a fundamental understanding of the underlying chemistry and physics and is key to obtaining materials with the desired performance for engineering applications in a wide variety of fields, from computing to medicine to energy.